Cities are complex systems, characterized by massive numbers of interconnected citizens. In the advent of new technologies, such as IoT or mobile applications, various domains within these systems can be enhanced to support the decisions of its citizens, businesses, or administration.
Ideally, a city follows a vision how to improve its smartness to generate value for its citizens. However, this top-down approach is often not applied consequently in many cities. Reasons are a reluctance to invest in new approaches due to a critical financial state or a conservative view averse to an approach that makes only sense regionally. A typical city already manages a big portfolio of IT solutions and it’s difficult to know in advance, what technologies and innovations will be used by end users.